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Literaturliste zur Vokalharmonie in afrikanischen Sprachen

Unter ‚Allgemeines‘ finden sich Aufsätze und Bücher, die einen allgemeinen Überblick über die Vokalharmonie in Afrika geben. Einige Artikel behandeln die Vokalharmonien mehrerer Sprachen oder einer ganzen Sprachfamilie in einem vergleichenden Ansatz. Sie sind unter der jeweiligen Sprachfamilie, z. B. Bantu, aufgelistet. Bei Artikeln, die die Vokalharmonie einer Einzelsprache beschreiben, findet sich die jeweilige Sprache unter der dazugehörigen Sprachfamilie aufgeführt. Die Klassifikation der Sprachen ist approximativ und entspricht nicht dem neuesten Stand. Sie beruht weitgehend auf Greenberg (1963) The languages of Africa, d.h. das Ijo wird den in der Klassifikation umstrittenen Kwa-Sprachen zugeordnet. Nur die Kru-Sprachen werden als eine eigene Untergruppe aufgeführt. Nach den jeweiligen Sprachnamen ist das Land angegeben, in denen die Sprache hauptsächlich gesprochen wird.

Diese Literaturliste beschränkt sich weitgehend auf Aufsätze, die in afrikanistischen Fachzeitschriften erschienen sind. Monographien, die auch die Vokalharmonie in der jeweiligen Sprache behandeln, werden nicht systematisch aufgeführt. Daher wird auch nicht der Anspruch erhoben, alle afrikanischen Sprachen, die Vokalharmonie aufweisen, vollständig erfasst zu haben. Ergänzende Angaben sind daher erwünscht und sehr willkommen.

  • Allgemeines
  • Niger-Kongo-Sprachen

    • Adamawa

      • Zande (Demokratische Republik Kongo)

    • Atlantisch

      • Bijagó (Guinea-Bissau)
      • Diola (Senegal)
      • Ndut (Senegal)
      • Wolof (Senegal)

    • Mande

      • Bisa (Burkina Faso, Ghana?)

    • Gur

      • C?f? (Burkina Faso)
      • K?nni (Ghana)
      • Minyanka (Mali)

    • Benue-Kongo

      • West Kainji

        • C'Lela (Nigeria)

      • Upper-Cross

        • Lokaa (Nigeria)

      • Kru

        • Klao (Kru, Liberia)
        • Tépo, Krumen (Kru, Elfenbeinküste)

      • Kwa

        • Akan (Ghana)
        • Akposso (Togo)
        • Chumburung (Nord-Guang, Ghana)
        • Ega (Kru ?)
        • Ekpeye (Igboid, Nigeria)
        • Ewe (Togo)
        • F?ngbè (Benin)
        • Igbo (Nigeria)
        • Igede (Idomoid, Nigeria)
        • Ijo (Nigeria)
        • Okpe (Edoid, Nigeria)
        • Uvwie ( Nigeria )
        • Yoruba (Nigeria)

    • Bantoid

      • Esimbi (Kamerun)
      • Yamba (Grassfield, Kamerun)

    • Bantu

      • Budu, Bira (B.30, Demokratische Republik Kongo)
      • Gunu (A.60 Kamerun)
      • Kàl?? (A.62. Kamerun)
      • Kinande (Uganda, Demokratische Republik Kongo)
      • Lobala (Demokratische Republik Kongo)
      • Nen, N?nì (A. 44 Kamerun)
      • SiSwati (Südafrika)

Allgemeines

  • Archangeli, Diana and Douglas Pulleyblank (1994). Grounded phonology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
  • Casali, Roderic F. (2003). [ATR] value Asymmetries and Underlying Vowel Inventory Structure in Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan. Linguistic typology 7/3: 307-382.
  • Dimmendaal, Gerrit (2001). Language diffusion versus genetic inheritance: An African perspective. Aikhenvald, Alexandra and R.M.W. Dixon (Hrsg.), Areal diffusion and genetic inheritance, p. 358-392. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Greenberg, Joseph (1963). Vowel harmony in African languages. Houis, Maurice et al. (Hrsg.), Actes du Second Colloque International de Linguistique Négro-Africaine, S. 33-38.
  • Hyman, Larry. 2002. “Is there a left-to-right bias in vowel harmony?”. Paper presented at the 9th international phonology meeting in Vienna, Nov. 1, 2002. To appear in the proceedings (Phonologica).
  • Ladefoged, Peter and Ian Maddieson (1996). The sounds of the world's languages. Kapitel 9 Vowels: 281-328.

Niger-Kongo-Sprachen

Adamawa

  • Zande (Demokratische Republik Kongo)

    • Boyd , R. (1997). Les harmonies vocaliques du zande. In: Lingua 101:1-19.

Atlantisch

  • Bijagó (Guinea-Bissau)

    • Wilson, W.A.A. (2000/1). Vowel harmony in Bijagó. Journal of West African Languages 28/1: 19-32

  • Diola (Senegal)

    • Ringen, Catherine O (1979). Vowel harmony in Igbo and Diola-fogny. Studies in African linguistics 10: 262-71.

  • Ndut (Senegal)

    • Guèye, Gabriel (1980). Contribution à l'étude phonologique du ndut. Mémoire maîtrise, sous la direction de Geneviève Ndiaye-Corréard, Université de Dakar. Faculté des Lettres.
    • Guèye, Gabriel (1980). L'harmonie vocalique en ndut. Réalités Africaines et Langue Française 13.
    • Guèye, Gabriel (1984). Contribution à l'étude phonétique du vocalisme du Ndut. Thèse de doctorat de 3ème cycle, présenté à l'université de Strasbourg II.
    • Drolc, Ursula (2004). A diachronic analysis of vowel harmony in Ndut. Studies in African Linguistics 33/2: 35-63.

  • Wolof (Senegal)

    • Ka, Omar (1994). Wolof phonology and morphology. Lanham: Univ. Press of America .
    • Pulleyblank, Douglas (1996). Neutral vowels in optimality theory: a comparison of Yoruba and Wolof. Canadian journal of linguistics/ Revue canadienne de linguistique 41 (4): 295-347.

Mande

  • Bisa (Burkina Faso, Ghana?)

    • Obeng, Samuel Gyasi (1993). Vowel harmony in Bisa. AAP (Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere) 36:115-123.

Gur

  • Rennison, John R. (1992). Welche Vokale hatte das Proto-Gur? Überlegungen anhand der Vokalharmonie und Vokalassimilation im Koromfe und Mòore. Erwin Ebermann et al. (Hrsg.) Komparative Afrikanistik. Sprach-, geschichts- und literaturwissenschaftliche Aufsätze zu Ehren von Hans G. Mukarovsky anläßlich seines 70. Geburtstags, S. 297-312.
  • Kropp Dakubu, Mary Esther (1997). Oti-Volta vowel harmony and Dagbani. Cahiers voltaiques/ Gur papers No. 2:81-88.

  • C?f? (Burkina Faso)

    • Winkelmann, Kerstin (1998). Die Sprache der C?f? von Daramandugu (Burkina Faso). S. 32-35. Berichte des Sonderforschungsbereichs 268 „Kulturentwicklung und Sprachgeschichte im Naturraum Westafrikanische Savanne“ Bd.11. Frankfurt am Main.

  • K?nni (Ghana)

    • Cahill, Mike (1996). ATR harmony in K?nni. In: David Dowty, Rebecca Herman and others (Hrsg.), Papers in phonology. Ohio State University Working Papers in Linguistics, 48:13-30. Columbus.
    • Cahill, Mike (1999). Vowel harmony in K?nni. In: Paul F. A. Kotey, (Hrsg.) New dimensions in African linguistics and languages. S.55-74. Trenton, N.J., Africa World Press.

  • Minyanka (Mali)

    • Dombrowsky-Hahn, Klaudia (1999). Phénomènes de contact entre les langues minyanka et bambara (sud du Mali). S. 69-70. Köln: Rüdiger Koppe Verlag.

Benue-Kongo

  • West Kainji
    • C'Lela (Nigeria)

      • Dettweiler, Stephen H. (2000/1). Vowel harmony and neutral vowels in C'Lela. Journal of West African Languages 28/1:3-18.

  • Upper-Cross
    • Lokaa (Nigeria)

      • Runsewe, Oluremi (1988). Vowel harmony in Lòk?. Journal of West African Languages 8/1:41-46.
      • Iwara, Alexander (1994). The vowel harmony system of Iwara. In: E.N. Emenanjo (Hrsg.). Nigerian Language Studies 2. Aba: National Institute Nigerian languages: 8-18.
      • Akinlabi, Akinbiyi & Alexander Iwara (2004). Transparency and opacity in Lokaa vowel harmony. In: Akinlabi, Akinbiyi & Oluseye Adesola (Hrsg.). Proceedings of the 4th World Congress of African Linguistics, New Brunswick 2003, S. 81-96. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.

  • Kru
    • Klao (Kru, Liberia)

      • Singler, John Victor. (1983). Vowel harmony in Klao. Linear and non-linear analyses. Studies in African Linguistics 14.1:1-33.

    • Tépo, Krumen (Kru, Elfenbeinküste)

      • Dawson, Keith (1975). L'accord vocalique en tépo. Annales de l'université d'Abidjan Série H, Linguistique 8: 15-26.

  • Kwa
    • Akan (Ghana)

      • Christaller, Johannes (1875). A Grammar of the Asante and Fante language called tshi [chwee, twi]: based on the Akuapem dialect. Basel 1875. Republished 1964 by Gregg Press Incorporated, Ridgewood, New Jersey.
      • Berry, Jack (1957). Vowel harmony in Twi. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies of London 19.1:124-130.
      • Boadi, Lawrence (1963). Palatality as a factor in Twi vowel harmony. Journal of African Languages Vol.2, Part 2: 133-138.
      • Dolphyne, Florence (1967). A phonological analysis of Twi vowels. Journal of West African Languages Vol.4 No 1.: 83-89.
      • Stewart, John M. (1967). Tongue root position in Akan vowel harmony. Phonetica 16: 185-204.
      • Schachter, Paul und Viktoria Fromkin (1968). A phonology of Akan: Akuapem, Asante and Fante, UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 9.
      • Painter, Colin (1973). Cineradiographic data on the feature 'Covered' in Twi vowel harmony. Phonetica 28: 97-120. (zitiert in Clements (1985).
      • Lindau, Mona (1975) [Features] for vowels. U.C.L.A: Working Papers in Phonetics, 30 (zitiert in Clements (1985).
      • Clements, George N. (1985). Akan vowel harmony: A nonlinear analysis. Goyvaerts, Didier, (Hrsg.) African linguistics, essays in memory of M.W.K. Semikenke. S. 55-98.
      • Stewart, John M. (1983). Akan vowel harmony: the word structure and the floating vowels. Studies in African linguistics 14/2, 111-139.
      • Clements, George N. (1984). Vowel harmony in Akan: a consideration of Stewart's word structure conditions. Studies in African linguistics 15/3: 321-337.
      • Hess, Susan (1992). Assimilatory effects in a vowel harmony system: an acoustic analysis of advanced tongue root in Akan. Journal of Phonetics 20: 475-492.

    • Akposso (Togo)

      • Anderson, Coleen G. (1999). ATR harmony in Akposso. Studies in African linguistics 28.2.:185-214.

    • Chumburung (Nord-Guang, Ghana)

      • Snider, Keith (1984). Vowel harmony and the consonant l in Chumburung. Studies in African linguistics 15:47-57.
      • Snider, Keith (1989). Vowel coalescence in Chumburung: An autosegmental analysis. Lingua 73:217-32.

    • Ega (Kru?)

      • Bolé-Richard, Rémy (1981). Une approche de l'harmonie vocalique: le mot phonologique en ega. Cahiers ivoriens de recherche linguistique 10: 31-51.

    • Ekpeye (Igboid, Nigeria)

      • Clark, David J. (1971). Vowel harmony system in Ekpeye. Research Notes 4.1.:23-33.

    • Ewe (Togo)

      • Clements, George (1975). Vowel harmony in Ewe. Studies in African linguistics 5: 281-302.

    • F?ngbè (Benin)

      • Cruz, Maxime da & Avolonto, Aimé (1993). Un cas d'harmonie vocalique en f?ngbè. Alain Kihm & Claire Lefebre, éds., Aspects de la grammaire du f?ngbè, etudes de phonologie, de syntaxe et de sémantique. Paris, Société d'Etudes Linguistiques et Anthroplogiques de France, S. 29-48.

    • Igbo (Nigeria)

      • Carnochan, Jack (1960). Vowel harmony in Igbo. African Language Studies 1:155-163.
      • Ringen, Catherine O. (1979). Vowel harmony in Igbo and Diola-fogny. Studies in African linguistics 10: 262-71.
      • Maduagwu, Georgina (2003). Vowel harmony in Ogbahu dialect of Igbo Language. Linguistique Africaine 23: 109-121.

    • Igede (Idomoid, Nigeria)

      • Abiodun, Michael (1991). Vowel harmony in Igede. Studies in African linguistics 22:157-69.

    • Ijo (Nigeria)

      • Jenewari, Charles (1973). Vowel harmony in Kalabari Ijo. Research Notes: 6.1-3:59-78.
      • Akinlabi, Akinbiyi M. (1995). ATR harmony in Kalabari Ijo. In: E. Nolue Emenanjo & Ozo-Mekuri Ndemeke, eds. Issues in African languages and linguistics. Essays in honour of Kay Williamson. Aba, National Institute for Nigerian Languages, S. 70-81.

    • Okpe (Edoid, Nigeria)

      • Hoffmann, Carl (1973). The vowel harmony system of the Okpe monosyllabic verb. Research notes 6.1-3:79-111.
      • Herault, George (1986). A propos de l'harmonie vocalique en?kp?. Studies in African linguistics 17:155-76.
      • Pulleyblank , Douglas (1986). Underspecification and low vowel harmony in Okpe. Studies in African linguistics 17:119-54.
      • Omamor, Augusta (1988). Okpe and Uvwie: A case of vowel harmony galore. Journal of West African Languages 18/1:47-64.
      • Orie, Olanike Ola (2001). An alignment-based account of vowel harmony in Ife Yoruba JALL (Journal of African Languages and Linguistics) Volume 22, Number 2: 117–143

    • Uvwie ( Nigeria)

      • Omamor, Augusta (1988). Okpe and Uvwie: A case of vowel harmony galore. Journal of West African Languages 18/1:47-64.

    • Yoruba (Nigeria)

      • Awobuluyi, A. Oladele (1967). Vowel and consonant harmony in Yoruba. Journal of African Languages 6: 1-8.
      • Awobuluyi, A. Oladele & Bamgbose, Ayo (1967). Two views of vowel harmony in Yoruba. Journal of African Languages 6.3:268-273.
      • Bamgbose, Ayo. (1967). Vowel harmony in Yoruba. Journal of African Languages 6.3.:268-173.
      • George, Isaac (1973). Vowel harmony: Why so restricted in Yoruba. Research Notes 6.1-3:171-188.
      • Capo, Hounkpati B. C. (1985). On the high non-expanded vowels in Yoruboid. Studies in African linguistics 16:101-21.
      • Archangeli, Diana and Douglas Pulleyblank (1989). Yoruba vowel harmony. Linguistic Inquiry 20: 173-217.
      • Bode, Oduntan. (1999). An optimality theory approach to vowel assimilation in the Yoruba language. In: Paul F. Kotey, (Hrsg.) New dimensions in African linguistics and languages. Trenton, N.J. Africa World Press, S. 37-54.
      • Przezdziecki, Marek A. (2005). Vowel harmony and coarticulation in three dialects of Yoruba: Phonetics determining phonology. Ph.D. thesis. Cornell Universtity.

Bantoid

  • Esimbi (Kamerun)

    • Hyman, Larry (1988) Underspecification and vowel height transfer in Esimbi. Phonology 5: 255-273.

  • Yamba (Grassfield, Kamerun)

    • Scruggs, Terri R. (1980). Vowel harmony in Yamba. Calgary Working Papers in Linguistics 6: 41-50.

Bantu

  • Greenberg, Joseph (1951). Vowel and nasal harmony in Bantu languages. Zaire 5:813-820.
  • Harris, John (1987). Non-structure-preserving rules in lexical phonology. South Eastern Bantu harmony. Lingua 73: 255-292.
  • Clements, George (1991). Vowel height assimilation in Bantu languages. In: Kathleen Hubbard (Hrsg.). Proceedings of the seventeenth annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics, February 15-18, 1991. Special session on African language structures. S. 25-64. Berkeley, Berkeley Linguistics Society.
  • Hyman, Larry M.(1999). The historical interpretation of vowel harmony in Bantu. In: Hombert, Jean-Marie und Larry M. Hyman (Hrsg.). Bantu Historical Linguistics. Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. S. 235-295. Stanford: CSLI Publications.
  • Stewart, John M. (2000). An explanation of Bantu vowel height harmony in terms of a Pre-Bantu nasalized vowel lowering. JALL (Journal of African Languages and Linguistics), Volume 21, Number 2: 161-178.
  • Stewart, John M. (2000/1). Symmetric vs. asymmetric vowel height harmony and e, o vs. i, u in Proto-Bantu and Proto-Savannah Bantu. Journal of West African Languages 28/2: 45-58.
  • Leitch, Myles Francis (2000). Vowel harmonies of the Congo Bassin: An optimality theory analysis of variation in the Bantu zone C. Ph.D. thesis. The University of British Columbia. (SIL)

  • Budu, Bira (B.30, Demokratische Republik Kongo)

    • Koehler, Loren Scott (1995). An underspecification approach to Budu vowel harmony . M.A. thesis, University of Texas at Arlington.

  • Gunu (A.60 Kamerun)

    • Hyman, Larry M. (2001). Vowel harmony in Gunu. Studies in African linguistics 30.2:146-70.

  • Kàl?? (A.62. Kamerun)

    • Hyman, Larry M. (2003). Abstract vowel harmony in Kàl??. A system driven account. To appear in Patrick Sauzet & Anne Zribi-Hertz (Hrsg.), Typologie des langues d’Afrique et universaux de la grammaire, 85-112. Paris: l’Harmattan.

  • Kinande (Uganda, Demokratische Republik Kongo)

    • ,Mutaka, Ngessimo Mathe (1995). Vowel harmony in Kinande. Journal of West African Languages 25.2:41-55.

  • Lobala (Demokratische Republik Kongo)

    • ,Morgan, David J. (1993). Vowel harmony, syllable structure and the causative extension in a Bantu language – Lobala: a government phonology account. Journal of West African Languages 23/1: 41-64.

  • Nen, N?nì (A. 44 Kamerun)

    • Stewart, John and Hélène van Leynseele (1979). Underlying cross-height vowel harmony in Nen (Bantu A44). JALL (Journal of African Languages and Linguistics) 1.1:31-54.
    • Mous, Maarten (1986). Vowel harmony in Tunen. In: Koen Bogers, Harry van der Hulst, and Maarten Mous (Hrsg.). The phonological representations of suprasegmentals, Dordrecht: Foris Publications: 281-295.
    • Van der Hulst, Harry, Maarten Mous and Norval Smith (1986). The auto-segmental analysis of reduced vowel harmony systems: the case of Tunen. In: F. Beukema and A. Hulk (Hrsg.), Linguistics in the , Netherlands, 1986. Dordrecht: Foris Publications: 105-122.
    • Bancel, Pierre (1991). The three-way vowel harmony of N « nì (Bantu A. 44. Cameroon ). Kathleen Hubbard, (Hrsg.) Proceedings of the seventeenth annual meeting of the , Berkeley, Linguistics, , February 15-18, 1991,. Special session on African language structures. Berkeley, Berkeley Linguistics society.

  • SiSwati (Südafrika)

    • Kockaert, Hendrik J. (1997). Vowel harmony in SiSwati: An experimental study of raised and non-raised vowels. JALL (Journal of African Languages and Linguistics) 18.2:136-156.

Nilosaharanische Sprachen

Nilotisch (Ostafrika)

  • Dimmendaal, Gerrit J. (2002). Constraining disharmony in Nilotic: What does an optimal system look like? JALL (Journal of African Languages and Linguistics) 23 (2002), 153-181.
  • Rottland, Franz (1996). Genetic and areal features of vowel harmony in East Africa . AAP (Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere) 45:129-137.

  • Westnilotisch

    • Alur (Uganda, Demokratische Republik Kongo)

      • Kutsch Lojenga, Constance (1991). Vowel harmony in Alur: On the crossroads of two systems. In: Franz Rottland & Lucia Omondi, Proceedings of the Third Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, Kisumu, Kenya, August 4-9. 1986. Hamburg: Helmut Buske, S.131-141.

    • Anywak (Sudan)

      • Reh, Mechthild (1996). Anywa language: description and internal reconstruction. S.51-54. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.

    • Dinka (Sudan)

      • Andersen, Torben. (1993). Vowel quality alternation in Dinka verb inflection. Phonology 10: 1-42.

    • Mabaan (Sudan)

      • Andersen, Torben (1999). Vowel quality alternation in Mabaan and its Western Nilotic history. JALL (Journal of African Languages and Linguistics) Volume 20, Number 2.

    • Mayak (Sudan)

      • Andersen, Torben (1999). Vowel harmony and vowel alternation in Mayak (Western Nilotic). Studies in African linguistics 28.1:1-29.

  • Südnilotisch

    • Datooga (Tansania)

      • Rottland, Franz (1996). Datooga nominals: the morphologization of vowel harmony. AAP (Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere) 45: 257-268.

    • Kalenjin (Kenia)

      • Antell, Stephen et al. (1973). Nilo-Saharan vowel harmony from the vantage point of Kalenjin. Research Notes 6.1-3:1-58.
      • Hall, Beatrice et al. (1974). African vowel harmony systems from the vantage point of Kalenjin. Afrika und Übersee 57: 241-267.
      • Larsen, Iver A. (1984). Vowel harmony in Koony. Occasional Papers in the Study of Sudanese Languages 3: 29-26.

    • Kipsigis (Kenia)

      • Martin, Bruce (1985). Vowel harmony in Kipsigis. Studies in African Linguistics, Supplement 9: 215-219.

  • Ostnilotisch

     

    • Bari (Sudan)

      • Steinberger, K.E.& Vago, Robert M. (1987). A multileveled autosegmental analysis of Bari: David Odden, (Hrsg.) Current approaches to African linguistics (Vol.4). Dordrecht, Foris Publications, S. 357-368.
      • Hall, Beatrice and Eluzai Yokwe (1981). Bari vowel harmony: The evolution of a cross-height vowel harmony system. Occasional Papers in the Study of Sudanese Languages 1: 55-63. (aus SIL)

    • Maasai (Kenia, Tansania)

    • Toposa (Uganda)

      • Schröder, Helga & Schröder, Martin (1987). Vowel harmony in Toposa. AAP (Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere) 12: 27-35.

    • Turkana (Kenia)

      • Dimmendaal, Gerrit (1983). The Turkana language. Dordrecht: Foris Publications, S.19-27.
      • Rottland, Franz & Otaala, Laura (1983). Mid-vowel assimilation in Teso-Turkana. Rainer Voßen & Marianne Bechhaus-Gerst, eds . N ilotic studies, proceedings of the International Symposium on Languages and History of the Nilotic Peoples, Cologne, January 4-6, 1982, Part One. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer, S. 169-181.
      • Vago, Robert M. & Leder, Harry (1987). On the autosegmental analysis of vowel harmony in Turkana. David Odden, (Hrsg.) Current approaches to African linguistics (Vol.4). Dordrecht, Foris Publications, S.383-395.
      • Noske, Manuela (1990). Vowel harmony in Turkana. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 20.1:123-134.
      • Noske, Manuela (1991). Feature-changing harmony in Turkana. Kathleen Hubbard, (Hrsg.) Proceedings of the seventeenth annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics, February 15-18, 1991. Special session on African language structures. Berkeley, Berkeley Linguistics society. S.166-176.
      • Noske, Manuela (1996). [ATR] harmony in Turkana. Studies in African linguistics 25.1:61-99.

Afroasiatische Sprachen

Tschadisch

  • Gidar (Kamerun, Tschad)

    • Hagège, Claude (1979). Faits d'harmonie vocalique en gidar. In Luc Bouquiaux (Hrsg.), Multilingualisme dans les domaines bantou du nord-ouest et tchadique, Paris, SELAF, S.168-169.

  • Kera (Tschad, Kamerun)

    • Ebert, Karen H. (1974). Partial vowel harmony in Kera. Studies in African linguistics supplement 5:75-80.
    • Pearce, Mary (2003). Vowel harmony in Kera (Chadic). Ph. D. Thesis. University College 73.

  • Tangale (Nigeria)

    • Jungraithmayr, Herrmann (1971). The Tangale vowel harmony system reconsidered. Journal of African Languages 10.1:28-33.
    • Kleinewillinghöfer, Ulrich (1990). Aspects of vowel harmony in Waja and Tangale-Waja common vocabulary. Frankfurter Afrikanistische Blätter Nr. 2, S. 93-106.

Kuschitisch